Edorium

Open

 
  Table of Contents    
Editorial
 
Gambling: Social and legal consequences
Mariassunta Crusco1, Francesco Massoni1, Eleonora Luzi2, Max Rapp-Ricciardi3. Serafino Ricci4
1MD, PhD, Department of Anatomical sciences, histological, legal medicine and locomotor apparatus.University "Sapienza" of Rome, Italy.
2PhD, Department of Anatomical sciences, histological, legal medicine and locomotor apparatus.University "Sapienza" of Rome, Italy; 3Lecturer, Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
3Professor, Department of Anatomical sciences, histological, legal medicine and locomotor apparatus.University "Sapienza" of Rome, Italy.

Article ID: 100001F02MC2015
doi:10.5348/F02-2015-1-ED-1

Address correspondence to:
Serafino Ricci
MD, Department of Anatomy, Histology
Legal Medicine and Orthopedics "Sapienza", University, Rome, Italy,
Viale Regina Elena 336, 00161 Rome
Italy
Phone: +39-06-49912547

Access full text article on other devices

  Access PDF of article on other devices

[HTML Abstract]   [PDF Full Text] [Print This Article]
[Similar article in Pumed] [Similar article in Google Scholar]

How to cite this article
Crusco M, Massoni F, Luzi E, Rapp-Ricciardi M, Ricci S. Gambling: Social and legal consequences. Edorium J Forensic Sci 2015;1:1–3.


The term new-addictions are referred to those new forms of dependence, much discussed in recent years, which is not involved in any chemicals that create physical dependence but in which there is a strong psychological dependence, which leads to constant search of 'object. Among the syndromes dependence "drug-free" [1] we are: eating disorders, gambling, compulsive shopping, internet use, sexual hyperactivity, the problematic use of video games and other technologies. The gambling disorder is defined as a behavioral addiction, classified in the new diagnostic manual DSM-V under the new category "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders" [2]. It was noted that many diagnostic criteria are common between the gambling disorder and substance abuse as: the continued exposure to the game/drugs despite the negative effects, the craving [3], the development of tolerance, withdrawal symptoms [4], repeated attempts to quit and relapse [5]. The gambling disorder is a psychiatric disorder emerging that has recently gained much attention because of its increasing prevalence and the consequences for personal, family and social relationships that cause devastating. In gambling disorder [6], are considered individual vulnerability and environmental factors; between the individual factors of note are the neuro-psycho-biological alterations with consequent alteration of the systems of gratification and a reduction in prefrontal [7] control pulse. Today, we know that the reward and motivation are primarily controlled by the limbic system, a set of brain areas involved in the genesis of emotions and in the processes of learning and memory. Numerous studies have allowed us to understand how alterations in some neurotransmitter systems may lead to changes in the system of reward and gratification [8]. Among the environmental factors [9] you must take into account the social, economic and often promotes gambling addiction (family relations problems, substance abuse and/or alcohol, divorce, insecurity, unemployment). From a social point of view individuals with gambling disorder have a high risk of being compromised personal financial that result negatively in the family and work, whose epilogue is in serious crimes related debts through gambling [10], and/or even request loans strenuous [11]. The latter aspect has been treated well by the Drug Policy Department who it said that there was from 2005 to 2011 an increase of 161% of the instances of access to the bottom wear linked to the phenomenon gambling disorder. Finally, it is necessary to point out that very often the gambling disorder is associated with the use of drugs, alcohol abuse. The presence of psychiatric conditions and high rates of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts [12]. Even family members of the players are involved in a destructive spiral. It was shown that the spouses of pathological gamblers are more likely to get into a nervous breakdown or give in to alcohol or other drugs [13].

From the scientific literature emerges as this disease is reflected strongly in the family because it is the patient's pathological behavior unhealthy (burglary, debts, financial) and the continuous lies to family compromising married life that results frequently in divorce. What, though, can seem like a problem that belongs to the private sphere, is also due to extreme hardship for the company as it is not uncommon for the Gamblers the impulse to perform illegal acts in order to maintain the activity of the game. It is well known, such as pathological gamblers begin to manifest misconduct, irrational and self injurious to fund their addiction: loans from family members, bank loans, theft and in extreme cases loans from moneylenders; also it can trigger a dangerous spiral on the floor working, both for work and for the frequent absences of the same neglect risking a progressive social descent. In recent years, gambling lawful went to see major changes as a result of the policies adopted (L. 184/2008), determining an increase, without taking into consideration the adverse side effects resulting from this increased availability. This literature shows that gambling disorder is a social issue of great importance as gamblers reveal uncomfortable situations up to a picture of loneliness and despair. At the individual level [14], you have health problems, both physical and mental. Physical problems such as withdrawal syndromes with abdominal pain, tremors, headaches and stress symptoms such as peptic ulcers, high blood pressure, migraines, allergies and mental problems include [15] depression, anxiety, antisocial personality disorders, suicide attempts, and addictions to drugs and alcohol. The disease is also associated with reduced labor productivity, an increase of offenses (fraud and theft), to economic difficulties, which can lead, not infrequently, the demand for loans or sometimes strenuous, suicide. At the interpersonal level, they highlight relational problems between the gambless and the family environment with risk of divorce, abandonment of the family, domestic violence. Finally, at the community level, there is a decrease in work productivity, an increase in expenditure of public health both medical and pharmacological to provide treatment services, counseling and other types, and an increase in incidents of crime.

From this picture just described, we can be in agreement with the World Health Organization that the gambling disorder defines as "a morbid form clearly identified and that, in the absence of appropriate measures for information and prevention, may be, because of its distribution, a 'authentic social disease."

Keywords: Gambling, Physical problems, Mental problems, Social consequences, Legal consequences

References
  1. Ruiz-Olivares R, Lucena V, Pino MJ, Herruzo J. Analysis of behavior related to use of the Internet, mobile telephones, compulsive shopping and gambling among university students. Adicciones 2010;22(4):301–9.   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 1
  2. Böning J, Meyer G, Hayer T. Gambling addiction. Nervenarzt 2013 May;84(5):563–8.   [CrossRef]   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 2
  3. Miedl SF, Büchel C, Peters J. Cue-induced craving increases impulsivity via changes in striatal value signals in problem gamblers. J Neurosci 2014 Mar 26;34(13):4750–5.   [CrossRef]   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 3
  4. Stea JN, Hodgins DC, Fung T. Abstinence versus Moderation Goals in Brief Motivational Treatment for Pathological Gambling. J Gambl Stud 2014 Apr 20.   [CrossRef]   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 4
  5. Romanczuk-Seiferth N, Koehler S, Dreesen C, Wüstenberg T, Heinz A. Pathological gambling and alcohol dependence: neural disturbances in reward and loss avoidance processing. Addict Biol 2015 May;20(3):557–69.   [CrossRef]   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 5
  6. Conversano C, Marazziti D, Carmassi C, Baldini S, Barnabei G, Dell'Osso L. Pathological gambling: a systematic review of biochemical, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological findings. Harv Rev Psychiatry 2012 May-Jun;20(3):130–48.   [CrossRef]   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 6
  7. Potenza MN. Neurobiology of gambling behaviors. Curr Opin Neurobiol 2013 Aug;23(4):660–7.   [CrossRef]   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 7
  8. Potenza MN. Review. The neurobiology of pathological gambling and drug addiction: an overview and new findings. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2008 Oct 12;363(1507):3181–9.   [CrossRef]   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 8
  9. Venuleo C, Salvatore S, Mossi P. The Role of Cultural Factors in Differentiating Pathological Gamblers. J Gambl Stud 2014 Jun 27.   [CrossRef]   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 9
  10. Folino JO, Abait PE. Pathological gambling and criminality. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2009 Sep;22(5):477–81.   [CrossRef]   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 10
  11. Kuoppamäki SM, Kääriäinen J, Lind K. Examining gambling-related crime reports in the National Finnish Police Register. J Gambl Stud 2014 Dec;30(4):967–83.   [CrossRef]   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 11
  12. Cook S, Turner NE, Ballon B, et al. Problem Gambling Among Ontario Students: Associations with Substance Abuse, Mental Health Problems, Suicide Attempts, and Delinquent Behaviours. J Gambl Stud 2014 Jul 1.   [CrossRef]   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 12
  13. Wenzel HG, Oren A, Bakken IJ. Gambling problems in the family--a stratified probability sample study of prevalence and reported consequences. BMC Public Health 2008 Dec 16;8:412.   [CrossRef]   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 13
  14. Nirenberg MJ. Dopamine agonist withdrawal syndrome: implications for patient care. Drugs Aging 2013 Aug;30(8):587–92.   [CrossRef]   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 14
  15. Lloyd J, Doll H, Hawton K, et al. How psychological symptoms relate to different motivations for gambling: an online study of internet gamblers. Biol Psychiatry 2010 Oct 15;68(8):733–40.   [CrossRef]   [Pubmed]    Back to citation no. 15

[HTML Abstract]   [PDF Full Text]

Author Contributions:
Mariassunta Crusco – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Analysis and interpretation of data, Drafting the article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Francesco Massoni – Analysis and interpretation of data, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Eleonora Luzi – Analysis and interpretation of data, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Max Rapp-Ricciardi – Analysis and interpretation of data, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Serafino Ricci – Analysis and interpretation of data, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Guarantor of submission
The corresponding author is the guarantor of submission.
Source of support
None
Conflict of interest
Authors declare no conflict of interest.
Copyright
© 2015 Mariassunta Crusco et al. This article is distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the original author(s) and original publisher are properly credited. Please see the copyright policy on the journal website for more information.



  Home line About the Journal line Aim and Scope line Sections line Open Access line Archives
Apply as Editor line Apply as Reviewer line Submit Reviews - Editors line Submit Reviews - Reviewers
Instructions for Authors line Templates to Use line Copyright Form line Author Checklist
Online Submission line Email Submission line Submit Revision line Submit All Forms line Submit Page Proofs
Terms of Service line Privacy policy line Disclaimer line FAQ line Contact: Journal line Contact: Edorium Journals line Site Map
 
  Copyright © 2017. Edorium. All rights reserved.